X-ray diffractometer with high brightness source Rigaku SmartLab 9kW

Ondřej Caha

Rigaku Smartlab 9kW is a novel high-resolution X-ray diffractometer dedicatedto characterization of thin films and nano-structures. Due to its modularity,the instrument allows for large variety of X-ray diffraction and scatteringtechniques. The non-destructive analytical techniques reveal information aboutcrystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials,thin films, and nano-structures.

Universal x-ray diffractometer with various high resolution, low resolutionand polycapilary optics, equipped with a high temperature chamber for in-situmeasurements.

RadiationHigh intensity Cu rotating anode X-ray tube (8 keV photon energy) toenhance signal from very thin layers; 45kV, 200mA
GoniometerVertical θ–θ goniometer with an in-plane detector arm.
Horizontal sample position can be used for most of the experimentaltechniques without gluing the sample.
Incident opticsCBO with parabolic Goebel mirror, automatic incidence slit
Ge 220 2-bounce and 4-bounce monochromators
polycapillary focusing optics
Sample stagesX-Y mapping stage with range 100mm, tilt stage, capillary holder
Sample sizemaximum diameter 150 mm, thickness up to 25 mm (absolute maximum cca75 mm)
Receiving opticsPSA, Ge 220 2-bounce analyzer
Detectorsproportional and linear (D-tex)
DHS-1100 chamberup to 1100°C; vacuum, air, inert gases

Available techniques and resulting information

X-ray reflectivity and coplanar diffuse scatteringThin films and multi-layers of inorganic or organic materialsThickness of layers (range 1 to hundreds of nm), surface and interfaceroughness, and roughness lateral correlations
Coplanar X-ray diffraction (available at various resolutions)Epitaxial hetero-structures and nano-structuresLattice parameters, lattice strain, chemical composition, inter-layerdiffusion
Wide angle diffractionPolycrystalline thin filmsLattice parameters and strain
Pole figures measurementsPolycrystalline samples – both, bulk or thin filmsDistribution of preferential crystallographic orientation (texture)
Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD)Thin crystalline films
In-plane lattice parameters and preferential crystallites orientation inthin films. Depth resolved measurements
Small angle X-ray scattering and grazing incidence small anglescattering – in 1D mode
Nano-particles (in solution or thin films) and nano-porous thin filmsParticles and pores size and size distribution, their mutual distance; feature size up to >≈ 100 nm
Scanning micro-diffractionLaterally inhomogeneous samplesInformation as for techniques above with lateral resolution down to 0.2 mm
X-ray diffraction and scattering during annealingSamples for which thermally induced processes are relevantInformation as above at elevated temperatures up to 1100 °C; Environment: vacuum or air