In the evaporation process, vapors are produced from a material located in a source (positively charged anode) which is heated by electron beam (given off by a charged tungsten filament). The process is carried out in high vacuum (10−7 to 10−8 mbar) so that the evaporated atoms undergo an essentially collisionless line-of-sight transport prior to condensation on the substrate. The substrate is usually at ground potential (i.e., not biased).
The impact of a high energy electron beam into a metallic sample offers a clean and high energy density method of heating (compared to resistive and inductive type of evaporators). A popular e-beam evaporative source using a strong magnetic field which bends the beam through 270°. The beam can be rastered across the material to melt a significant fraction of the surface.
|substrate temperature RT – 900 °C|
|sample size up to 7 × 7”|
|rotation of substrate|
|tilt of substrate holder up 270°|
|electron source up to 10 kW|
|standard materials||Au, Ti, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni , Fe, CrO, Ag, Al, NiFe, NiCr|